In an interesting study conducted by Iranian researchers on the various compounds of venom, it was found that venom is one of the most bizarre developments in the evolution of organisms.
The venom of most snakes is a rich source of proteins and peptides that affect the body's balance system, which works against a variety of factors involved in blood clotting. The different compounds in the venom target various parts of the prey's vital systems, mainly the nervous and the circulatory system killing the prey in a short amount of time. However, the greatest effect of snake venom is on the circulatory system including blood coagulation, blood pressure regulation, and transmission of the nervous or muscular impulses causing vascular rupture, internal bleeding, and cerebral hemorrhage. Swelling and pain also appear after a few minutes.
According to experts, bloody urine, hemorrhage and seizures are the main complications of snake bites. In addition, bleeding occurs from the spot of the bite, vascular injury, and from the gums and gastrointestinal tract, which has very severe and lethal clinical effects. According to Sina Press, snake bites affect about 3 to 4 million people annually in which more than one hundred thousand are killed.
One of the leading causes of death and complications from venom is coagulation disorders. Bite-coagulation disorder has various clinical aspects such as pre-coagulation, coagulation time, platelet activation, and hemorrhage, which are important to diagnose and treat.
According to Sina Press, the results of this comprehensive study show that snake venom consists of four main groups of compounds, including a) protein compounds with enzymatic properties, b) anticoagulant protein compounds with non-enzymatic properties, c) hematopoietic compounds and d) pre-coagulation proteases.
According to Mehdi Babaei, a researcher at the Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute of the Agricultural, Education and Extension Research Organization, "The first group of compounds includes the following: Phospholipases, L Amino oxidases, Proteases, Thrombin-like enzymes, Calicrin-like proteases, Protein C activators, Factor V activators, Factor X activators, FX activators, FVII activators, FV activators, plasminogen activators, and finally nucleases and ribonucleases. The second group also includes thrombin inhibitors, lupus anticoagulants, van Wilberland factor, glycoprotein platelets, and finally inhibitors of serine protease inhibitors".
"All of these factors cause coagulation disorders and if not properly understood, may interfere with the diagnosis and treatment that can cause death," Babaei said.
According to Sina Press, this valuable research information, published in the scientific journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences, plays an important role in public awareness and even scientists to better make antidotes.